【世界史】 中世西欧の成立４ 封建社会の成立 （１９分）
It also enables the Vassalage and Serfdom civics.
In the unsettled times following the collapse of Charlemagne s Frankish empire, a new social and political system arose in Europe called feudalism.
Derived from the concept of monarchy, feudalism was a hierarchical system in which each descending stratum owed allegiance to those above.
The king, whose authority was go here only to God, granted tracts of land, or fiefs, to his barons.
The barons might then grant smaller estates to knights, who swore to protect and serve the baron.
The knights, in turn, might then grant 赤ちゃん美人コンテスト変身ゲーム opinion of their fiefs to subordinates who would serve the knights.
At the bottom of the feudal pyramid were the serfs, who could not own land, and acted essentially as slave laborers who worked the land for their masters.
Feudalism began to decline in the 13th century, when standing armies and mercenaries began to fulfill the protective role once served by the vassals and knights.
It enables the Theocracy civic and allows construction of the Sistine Chapel wonder.
Theology is the study of God and religious truth.
Theological seminaries teach courses of study in theology to prepare people as priests and clergymen.
Many of the earliest colleges of the western world were originally established for this purpose.
Theological study helped to remove some of the superstitions that had surrounded https://top-free-jackpot-money.site/1/158.html for so long, and brought religious study into a more enlightened age.
It also allows construction of Cathedrals and the Notre Dame wonder.
Finally, cities can convert production directly into Culture.
Music finds a comfortable parallel with that of human language.
Much as language has words, sentences, and stories, music has tones, melodies, and songs.
The theory of music emphasizes the elements from which music is composed.
One such structure is the melody, which is a grouping of musical notes that combine into a basic, but immensely flexible structure.
Another is the chord, which is two or more notes played simultaneously to create a harmony.
The impact of music throughout history can be clearly seen, as both entertainment and an art.
It increases production from all workshops チョイゲーム封建制2ハッキング 1.
A guild is an association of people who practice the same trade.
The guilds seek to protect their members incomes, maintain standards of performance, and train new workers in the trade.
Guilds have often built hospitals, orphanages and schools to serve their members.
Guilds seek to expand their membership to include all who practice their profession.
Such monopolies allow guilds greater control over the fees their members can charge for their services.
Many of the earliest guilds - Roman professional organizations, for instance - had strong religious components.
The European guilds came into being around 1000 AD.
They included a rigid ライトボットゲームオンライン of skilled workers - apprentice, craftsman, journeyman, master and for カジノゲームリアルマネー are grandmaster.
The higher in the hierarchy a member was, the more he payment he could demand.
This structure greatly increased the guilds memberships, since one could not attain the higher statuses without belonging to a guild.
Further, it lets your workers spread Irrigation.
Civil Service is the technology of bureaucracy - organizing and running a government.
A successful civil service requires standard procedures, division of responsibility, hierarchy, and advancement through merit.
Clearly record-keeping is crucial to the successful management of a government, as well.
While some early cultures kept records on clay or wax or stone tablets, the advent of paper was a boon to the advance of bureaucracy and a civil service.
One of the oldest known civil services is found in China, during the Tang dynasty 600-900 AD.
This was created largely in response to the Confucian demands for honest government; among other innovations, the Tang civil servants were hired based upon トップガンハードロック無料ダウンロードフルバージョン results of a written examination, rather than through the more common methods of bribery and patronage, and thus had fewer ties to the wealthy and powerful nobility.
The English followed the Chinese civil service model when they created a bureaucracy to manage their growing colonies.
Though successful, the practice did not spread to Europe until the mid-18th century.
Divine Right also allows construction of the Versailles and Spiral Minaret wonders.
The divine right theory of royal legitimacy holds that monarchs rule by direct sanction PC用のゲームを無料でダウンロード God; accordingly, they are not accountable to any authority other than God.
Legislatures, courts, judges, and the governed have no right to restrain the king s exercise of his authority, according to this theory.
When kings who proclaimed their divine right to rule disagreed with the Church on political or religious matters, the results were often interesting チョイゲーム封建制2ハッキング violent.
Ironically, the theory of divine right was partly responsible for the rise of the idea of separation between church and state, since divine-right rulers claimed that their godly sanction entitled them to impose rules on the ecclesiastical authorities in their kingdoms regardless of what the Church thoughtand to ignore those authorities instructions on how they ought to govern.
The divine right doctrine began during the late Middle Ages, when rulers sought to rein in feudal lords whose support came with a few too many strings attached.
It had begun to lose its luster around the 17th century, although Napoleon Bonaparte drove what was perhaps the final nail into its coffin when, at his imperial coronation 77 2019, he seized the crown from the Pope s hands and placed it on his own head -- thereby denying God s prerogative to name rulers, and seizing that power for himself.
Philosophy enables the Pacifism civic and allows construction of the Angkor Wat wonder.
In their leisure time, these people contemplated principles of thinking and being, logic and mathematics, and the natures of reality and existence.
In ancient times, the study of philosophy was indistinguishable from the study of science, and many of the theories formulated by the early philosophers became the basis for studies in the fields of astronomy, medicine, chemistry, and physics.
The teachings and writings of the ancient philosophers of Greece and the Orient also, in part, laid the groundwork for many of the world s oldest organized religions.
When discovered, paper revolutionized information technology.
Before the advent of paper, scholars and writers used a number of different materials upon which to record their words.
These included clay tablets, animal skins, silk, and others.
These suffered from many shortcomings.
Clay was bulky and fragile, animal skins were expensive, silk was expensive and fragile, and so forth - and none of them would have been suitable for use in a printing press.
Papyrus was the earliest form of paper.
It was created by cutting the stem of the papyrus plant into strips, which were laid in an overlapping pattern and pounded into a sheet.
The material was then dried and polished.
While serviceable, the resulting sheet is fairly thick and, 音声認識ゲーム importantly, subject to rot in damp climates.
Paper as we know it today was invented in China in around 100 AD.
Wood and other fibrous material is mixed with liquid and mashed into a pulp, which is then poured onto fine screens.
When this material dries, it becomes paper.
The Chinese official Cai Lun is credited with adding cotton rags to the pulp; the resulting paper was far sturdier than earlier versions.
The Chinese process spread slowly throughout the world, reaching Europe around 1300 AD.
When paired with the printing press - yet another Chinese invention - paper exponentially チョイゲーム封建制2ハッキング the spread of information and art.
Banking also enables the Mercantilism civic.
Many of the services performed by banks today can be traced back to medieval Europe.
Certain families, such as the Medicis of Italy, were known for the banking duties they performed.
These wealthy merchants pooled their surplus money into a bank, then loaned cash with interest to other commercial enterprises.
The availability of this capital for investment made many new businesses possible, accelerating economic growth.
The first modern banks were established in Europe during the late 1600s.
The primary function of today s banking system is the granting of loans to consumers and businesses.
In addition to loaning money and safeguarding deposits, banks also invest in government and private securities and bonds.
Both the loan and investment functions of banks not only make profits for the bank itself, but also stimulate the economy by providing funds for business growth and consumer purchases.
It also lets workers build Windmills and Watermills.
A machine is an object constructed of several parts that assists in the performance of a task.
The machinery technology allows construction of fairly complex machines with metal components that store, modify and transmit energy in a useful fashion.
A windmill is a machine of this type, as is a printing press.
Man has used primitive machines throughout much of history.
A bow can be considered a simple machine, as can a mortar and pestle.
More complex machines came into being in the Middle Ages - at least in Europe.
The Persians had windmills back in the seventh century BC.
The https://top-free-jackpot-money.site/1/883.html machines consisted of gears, https://top-free-jackpot-money.site/1/547.html, levers, pulleys, screws, winches and so forth.
Some of these elements could be satisfactorily created of wood or stone, but those substances tend to be both fragile and very difficult to work with, particularly in small sizes.
Once チョイゲーム封建制2ハッキング provided stronger and チョイゲーム封建制2ハッキング precise metal components, machines rapidly grew in sophistication and utility.
It increases road movement and allows construction of Castles and the Hagia Sophia wonder.
Their work involved the construction of roads, bridges, fortifications, and the performance of other duties relating to the military.
In the late 18th century, civil engineers took over all non-military engineering functions.
ゲームカントリーライフ fields of engineering prior to the 20th century included mining engineers, who designed mines and methods of mining, and mechanical engineers, who dealt with the design and construction of machinery.
As new technologies developed, new fields of engineering developed along with them.
Today, there are engineers specifically trained in nearly every field, from electronics and computers to chemistry and atomics.
Optics also increases your sight distance across water.
Optics is the study of the behavior of light.
In Civilization IV, the optics technology refers specifically to the branch of optics that concentrates upon improving human sight through the creation of optical instruments such as eye glasses, telescopes and microscopes.
Advancements in optics had profound effects upon man s interaction with the world around him.
It is not certain when the first working telescope was created.
A number of lens-shaped crystals were found in a Viking grave dating from the 10th Century, but there is debate over whether these were purely decorative or were used to enhance vision.
Accurate star charts allowed sailors to better chart their courses while at sea.
The Janssens, a family of Dutch spectacle makers, are claimed to have built the first working microscope in 1590; but once again, there is debate over that claim.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek famously used an early microscope to examine cells, bacteria, and other extremely small living creatures.
This research was to revolutionize man s understanding of biology and medicine.
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